Related Scientific Publications, Papers

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Convective winds at the Florida Spaceport: year-3 of Plymouth State research
Author: 
Heather A. Dinon, Matthew J. Morin, James P. Koermer and William P. Roeder

Year: 
2008

Publisher: 
13th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology

Description: 
This paper demonstrates how the new WSR-88D radar Level-III data have improved the climatology and how they have helped to identify trends in the setup and behavior of convective activity in the wind tower mesonetwork on the Florida Space Coast.
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The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: An Overview
Author: 
William P. Roeder, Todd M. McNamara, Billie F. Boyd and Francis J. Merceret

Year: 
2009

Publisher: 
34th Conference on Radar Meteorology

Description: 
The 45 WS is installing a new Radtec 43-250 weather radar to replace the aging WSR-74C at Patrick AFB. The upgraded analysis and display software will display dual-polarization products and allow continuous vertical cross-sections. This new radar will provide significant new capability to 45 WS in support of America’s space program in Florida.
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The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: Scan Strategy Design
Author: 
William P. Roeder and David A. Short

Year: 
2009

Publisher: 
35th Conference on Radar Meteorology

Description: 
The 45 WS is installing a new Radtec 43-250 weather radar to replace the aging WSR-74C. This new radar will provide significant improvements over the WSR-74C, including Doppler velocity and dual-polarization capabilities. A scan strategy, designed by Applied Meteorology Unit, will optimize use of the radar for the 45 WS mission, especially evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and issuing lightning warnings.
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A 7-Yr Climatological Study of Land Breezes over the Florida Spaceport
Author: 
Jonathan L. Case, Mark Wheeler, John Manobianco, Johnny W. Weems and William P. Roeder

Year: 
2005

Publisher: 
Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 340-356

Description: 
Seven years of wind and temperature data from a high-resolution network of 44 towers at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station were used to develop an objective method for identifying land breezes, which are defined as seaward-moving wind shift lines in this study.
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Applications of the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System Database
Author: 
William P. Roeder, J. W. Weems and P. B. Wahner

Year: 
2004

Publisher: 
Conference on Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data

Description: 
This paper discusses the meteorological applications of the CGLSS database. These applications have included: climatological studies, equipment retests/validation, post fire analysis, manpower/labor analysis and scheduling, and energy analysis.
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Assessment of the importance of certain wind towers in the Cape Canaveral AFS/Kennedy Space Center mesonet for predicting convective winds
Author: 
James P. Koermer and William P. Roeder

Year: 
2008

Publisher: 
13th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology

Description: 
The goal of this research is to estimate the value of the most costly to maintain weather towers in convective wind warnings in order to aid potential decision-making on which towers to keep or remove for future budget considerations. This study will evaluate the utility of those towers in convective wind warnings and only as independent information sources.
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Attenuation of Weather Radar Signals Due to Wetting of the Radome by Rainwater or Incomplete Filling of the Beam Volume
Author: 
Francis J. Merceret, Jennifer G. Ward

Year: 
2002

Publisher: 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Description: 
A search of scientific literature, both printed and electronic, was undertaken to provide quantitative estimates of attenuation effects of rainfall on weather radar radomes. The emphasis was on C-band (5 cm) and S-Band (10 cm) wavelengths. An empirical model was developed to estimate two-way wet radome losses as a function of frequency and rainfall rate for both standard and hydrophobic radomes.
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Computer Based Training for Issuing Lightning Advisories at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station / Kennedy Space Center
Author: 
William P. Roeder, Scott C. Jacobs, James E. Sardonia, Johnny W. Weems, Clark S. Pinder and Michael S. Christie

Year: 
2002

Publisher: 
10th Conference on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology

Description: 
New military forecasters are usually not adequately trained in pin-point lightning forecasting and certainly are not trained on the special lightning sensors at 45 WS. The lightning CBT was developed to help overcome these challenges and improve training on issuing lightning advisories by 45 WS.
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Developing empirical lightning cessation forecast guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center
Author: 
Geoffrey T. Stano, Henry E. Fuelberg, and William P. Roeder

Year: 
2010

Publisher: 
Journal of Geophysical Research

Description: 
This research addresses the 45th Weather Squadron’s (45WS) need for improved guidance regarding lightning cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (KSC)
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Development and Testing of Operational Dual-polarimetric Radar Based Lightning Initiation Forecast Techniques
Author: 
Crystal J. Woodard, Lawrence D. Carey, Walter A. Petersen, Mariana Felix, William P. Roeder

Year: 
2011

Publisher: 
NASA

Description: 
The overall objective of this NASA MSFC funded study is to test and improve algorithms for the prediction of lightning initiation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) through development of operational techniques that rely on parameters observed and diagnosed using C-band dual-polarimetric radar.
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Empirical Forecasting of Lightning Cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center
Author: 
Geoffrey T. Stano, Henry E. Fuelberg, William P. Roeder

Year: 
2008

Publisher: 
20th International Lightning Detection Conference

Description: 
This research addresses a seldom studied aspect of lightning—lightning cessation. Holle et al. (1992) found that the majority of casualties occur either during thunderstorm initiation or during dissipation. Between these times, when the threat of lightning is obvious, there are fewer casualties. Thus, the initiation and cessation of lightning activity are critically important periods.
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Empirical forecasting of lightning cessation at the Kennedy Space Center
Author: 
Geoffrey T. Stano, H. E. Fuelberg and W. P. Roeder

Year: 
2008

Publisher: 
Third Conference on Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data

Description: 
This research presents storm and environmental characteristics associated with lightning cessation that then are utilized to create lightning cessation guidelines for isolated thunderstorms for use by the 45WS during the warm season months of May through September.
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Evaluation of WSR-88D methods to predict warm-season convective wind events at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center
Author: 
James J. Rennie, James P. Koermer and Thomas R. Boucher

Year: 
2010

Publisher: 
22nd Conference on Climate Variability and Change

Description: 
This paper attempted to evaluate previous WSR-88D to forecast convective winds on the CCAFS/KSC complex. Using an updated dataset with earlier lead times, it was shown that these methods do not provide adequate results.
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Installation, Upgrade, and Evaluation of a Short Baseline Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System used to Support Space Launch Operations
Author: 
Billie F. Boyd, W. P. Roeder, D. L. Hajek, and M. B. Wilson

Year: 
2004

Publisher: 
Conference on Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data

Description: 
This paper discusses the need for the system, its use in all phases of launch operations, its original design, and the most recent modifications accomplished to ensure the system best meets the needs of America’s space program.
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Lightning Initiation Forecasting: An Operational Dual-Polarimetric Radar Technique
Author: 
Crystal J. Woodard, Lawrence D. Carey, Walter A. Petersen and William P. Roeder

Year: 
2011

Publisher: 
NASA

Description: 
The purpose of this study is to improve algorithms for the short-term prediction of lightning initiation through development and testing of operational techniques that rely on parameters observed and diagnosed using C-band dual-polarimetric radar.
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Lightning Reporting At 45th Weather Squadron: Recent Improvements
Author: 
"Frank C. Flinn William P. Roeder Michael D. Buchanan Todd M. McNamara Michael McAleenan, Katherine A. Winters, Michael E. Fitzpatrick and Lisa L. Huddleston"

Year: 
2010

Publisher: 
NASA

Description: 
This paper will describe the significant improvements to the 45 WS lightning reports since April 2008.
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Meteorological And Oceanic Instrumentation At Spaceport Florida—Opportunities For Coastal Research
Author: 
William P. Roeder, D. L. Hajek, F. C. Flinn, G. A. Maul, and M. E. Fitzpatrick

Year: 
2003

Publisher: 
Fifth Conference on Coastal Atmospheric and Oceanic Prediction and Processes

Description: 
This paper will discuss the special meteorological and oceanographic sensors available to support coastal research around the east central coast of Florida.
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Performance of the new Four-Dimensional Lightning Surveillance System (4DLSS) at the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station complex
Author: 
Martin J. Murphy, Kenneth L. Cummins, Nicholas W.S. Demetriades and William P. Roeder

Year: 
2008

Publisher: 
13th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology

Description: 
The purpose of this paper is to describe the new system, its operational uses and applications, and the performance testing that has been done to validate the new system.
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Recent improvements in lightning reporting at 45th Weather Squadron
Author: 
Frank C. Flinn, William P. Roeder, Donald J. Pinter, Sonia M. Holmquist, Michael D. Buchanan, Todd M. McNamara, Michael McAleenan, Katherine A. Winter,s Philip S. Gemmer, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, Richard D. Gonzalez

Year: 
2010

Publisher: 
NASA

Description: 
This paper will describe the significant improvements to the 45 WS lightning reports since April 2008.
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Report on the Radar/PIREP Cloud Top Discrepancy Study
Author: 
Dr. Frank Merceret, Mark M. Wheeler

Year: 
1997

Publisher: 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Description: 
This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit’s (AMU) investigation of inconsistencies between pilot reported cloud top heights and weather radar indicated echo top heights (assumed to be cloud tops) as identified by the 45 Weather Squadron (45WS).
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The Art of Forecasting a NASA Shuttle Launch
Author: 
Jack Williams

Year: 
2011

Publisher: 
Weatherwise

Description: 
Article describing the various criteria that go into a Go/No-Go decision for Shuttle launches and landings.
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The Four Dimensional Lightning Surveillance System
Author: 
William P. Roeder

Year: 
2010

Publisher: 
Vaisala

Description: 
This paper will discuss the Four Dimensional Lightning Surveillance System (4DLSS) in detail.
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The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy
Author: 
Lawrence D. Carey, William P. Roede2, Kevin M. McGrath, Walter A. Petersen, and Wiebke K. Deierling

Year: 
2009

Publisher: 
34th Conference on Radar Meteorology

Description: 
This paper describes an ongoing project to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate situation-dependent, mission-optimized radar scan strategies with user adaptive input of the temperature profile and other important parameters.
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Unique Uses Of Weather Radar For Space Launch
Author: 
William P. Roeder, Todd M. McNamara, Billie F. Boyd, Johnny W. Weems, and Stephen B. Cocks

Year: 
2005

Publisher: 
32nd Conference on Radar Meteorology

Description: 
This paper presents an overview of the unique weather radar applications used by the 45 WS including their special tools and techniques, the modifications to the local weather radar, and plans to use dual polarization and dual Doppler capabilities.
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Use of Archived Weather Data from Spaceport Florida in Support of Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation
Author: 
Katherine A. Winters, W. P. Roeder, J. T. Madura, and H. C. Herring

Year: 
2003

Publisher: 
14th Conference on Applied Climatology

Description: 
This paper presents the process for consolidating archived Eastern Range weather data for the STS-107 accident investigation and includes the challenges created by an 8-day data gap. This paper will not cover the use of the data by the accident board and other investigating teams, but rather the importance of archiving weather data, and doing so in a standard format which allows multiple types of analyses from the same data source.
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Use of Weather Radar to Support America's Space Program—Past, Present, and FutureUse of Weather Radar to Support America's Space Program—Past, Present, and Future
Author: 
B. F. Boyd, J. W. Weems, W. P. Roeder, C. S. Pinder, and T. M. McNamara

Year: 
2003

Publisher: 
31st International Conference on Radar Meteorology

Description: 
The 45 WS uses two weather radars, primarily a modified WSR-74C that has undergone extensive modifications. The goal is to continue with the best weather surveillance radar available to meet space launch requirements.
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Using Temperature Layered VIL As Automated Lightning Warning Guidance
Author: 
William P. Roeder, Todd M. McNamara

Year: 
2011

Publisher: 
Fifth Conference on the Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data

Description: 
This paper will review the temperature layered Vertically Integrated Liquid (VIL) technique developed by the 45 WS to forecast the onset of lightning. Although this technique was developed many years ago, it has not been published previously.
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Validation and development of existing and new RAOB-based warm-season convective wind forecasting tools for Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center
Author: 
Mitchell H. McCue, James P. Koermer, and Thomas R. Boucher

Year: 
2010

Publisher: 
22nd Conference on Climate Variability and Change

Description: 
The principle objective of this study was to develop ways of improving warm-season convective wind forecasting on central Florida's Space Coast using a 15 year climatology (1995-2009) of 1500 UTC RAOB data from the CCAFS Skid Strip and 5 minute averaged peak wind from the 36 weather towers selected from the network.
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Weather System Upgrades to Support Space Launch at the Eastern Range and Kennedy Space Center
Author: 
D. E. Harms, B. F. Boyd, F. C. Flinn, T. M. McNamara, J. T. Madura, T. L. Wilfong, and P. R. Conant

Year: 
2003

Publisher: 
12th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, American Meteorological Society

Description: 
This paper presents an overview of weather systems on the ER and KSC supporting the space launch mission and associated ground processing operations. It also summarizes recent and planned weather instrumentation upgrades at the ER and NASA’s KSC.
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